Nigeria-South Africa Diplomatic Spat Highlights Growing Regional Rivalry

Posted by James Kimer on March 9, 2012.

The incident that sparked the bitter falling out between the governments of Nigeria and South Africa this week started out simply enough, then quickly blossomed into a full blown political scandal.

One week ago, on March 2nd, an Arik Air flight departing from Lagos, Nigeria arrived to O.R. Tambo International Airport in Johannesburg, carrying 125 passengers of Nigerian nationality.  But as the passengers approached customs, the South Africa Port Health Authority declared that some passengers were carrying fraudulent yellow fever immunization cards (despite the fact that visas cannot be obtained without already having proved immunization), and decided promptly to bar entry to the country and deport all passengers back to Nigeria.  In response, Arik Air suspended all flights to Johannesburg for a number of days, denouncing the flawed and “discriminatory” protocol exercised by the Port Health Authority that had turned away hundreds of passengers in recent months.

As the story circulated in the media that the passengers had been held for 24 hours without food or water in poor conditions before being deported like refugees, the public outrage grew and the Federal Government was prompted to speak out, including a tit-for-tat deportation of 136 South African travelers.  Despite demands for an apology at the highest levels, the South African government remained obstinate for days before finally reversing and offering an official apology and a promise to improve bilateral relations and to find a solution for the immunization card issue.

The feud may be resolved for the moment, but much of the harsh tone exchanged between Africa’s two largest nations belied an air of emerging economic rivalry and no small amount of national pride.  South Africa’s stature among many other African nations is gradually changing from a model to be imitated to a sense of resentment of perceived arrogance – which was forcefully driven home by the nature of the deportation of Nigerians for “health” reasons.

“What you see playing out is … xenophobia by South Africans against all Africans, not just Nigerians, including even those from their neighbouring countries,” said Foreign Minister Olugbenga Ashiru earlier this week, drawing applause from the floor of the National Assembly and no doubt resonating across a number of other nationalities in the region.  What was interesting about this diplomatic spat, however, was that the South Africans remained firmly unapologetic up until the moment in which the Nigerian authorities indicated that there could be penalties or more difficult conditions for South African investments in the country, a development that highlights how influence has shifted in Africa away from “the center” (ie, from European colonial powers to the U.S. and now China/India) and toward the “periphery” (with both South Africa, Nigeria, and, to a lesser extent, Kenya and Ghana, all competing for economic and political influence in the region).

An Undisputed Regional Power?

The controversial handling of the Arik Airways deportation issue by South Africa was in many ways a reflection of power.  Perhaps Pretoria believed it could dictate its own terms to the Nigerians because for so many years now they have been the unchallenged regional leader, accustomed to making rules, not taking rules.

No one would question why South Africa is seen as the star of the region, as it boasts the highest GDP on the continent ($363.7 billion in 2010), , and 18-years of stable post-apartheid governance under a constitutional democracy.  South Africa has become the economic powerhouse of Africa, accounting for 24% of the continent’s GNP, with strong economic diversity in mining (almost 19% of the economy), manufacturing, agriculture, real estate, and financial services.  To boot, South Africa has been formally invited to join the Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC) quartet, becoming a full member during the 2011 BRICS Summit in Hainan, while also holding a little event known as the 2010 FIFA World Cup – something that all Africans were proud of.

So how does Nigeria, with its penchant for self-destructive corruption, terrorist violence, and notoriously poor governance, stand a chance of competing with South African for regional influence?

Size Matters

To put it quite simply, Nigeria has much more in common with the nations of the BRIC quartet than South Africa for the sheer size of its market and its potential for future economic growth and consumption.  South Africa has just shy of 50 million people, while the population of Nigeria, though not counted by a proper census in years, is estimated to hover well above 170 million and growing quickly (in many Nigerian cities there are literally more people than products to buy), representing a staggering level of human capital alongside massive oil reserves and many other untapped natural resources.  Nigeria’s sizable military also allows for one of the largest contributions of soldiers to United Nations Peacekeeping Missions in Africa, something that the continent could arguably not survive without, further extending Abuja’s influence in the region.

As for South Africa’s inclusion among the BRICs (which alone is a poorly understood grouping), there are also some questions as to the country’s candidacy as a premiere emerging market.  The economist who invented the acronym, Jim O’Neill of Goldman Sachs, has remarked that he feels disappointed that the grouping has utilized more as the basis of a political pact rather than strictly basing membership on economic fundamentals.  “It [South Africa] is nowhere near constituting a BRIC, and without staggering productivity improvements and major immigration or improvements in birth rates, etc., it is never going to get there,” O’Neill said, pointing out the small size of South Africa’s market and population.  “South Africa has played on the notion that because they do have developed markets and Western governing standards in some areas they’ve said ‘look, we are the gateway to the rest of Africa. (…) What intrigues me is whether other big African countries accept that and I doubt that Nigeria is going to be very happy about that.

Adding fuel to the fire of the Nigeria-South Africa economic rivalry was an announcement last fall that Nigeria would rebase the estimation of its Gross Domestic Product from 1990 to 2008, which would in theory catapult the country up to the level of South Africa to compete for the #1 spot as the continent’s largest economy and the premiere destination for foreign investment over the coming years.

But all this is not to say that we can expect Nigeria to outpace South Africa’s high level of development anytime in the short term.  Pretoria will likely continue to enjoy several critical advantages over Nigeria in terms of 1) political stability, 2) national security, and 3) depth of non-export economy (value-added service sector employment).  Not many people like to talk about it, but the ruling Africa National Congress (ANC) party suffers from deep levels of corruption on par with a number of Nigeria’s institutions, while the poorest 25% of South Africans live on even less than the poorest segment of Nigeria’s population.  So much of Nigeria’s success in becoming a regional leader will relate to its ability to deliver quality governance, establish stability and security, and address some of the long overdue critical needs, such as a reliable electricity grid, but if these concerns can be met, the sky is the limit.  And if Nigeria is able to make real progress toward these ends over the next decade, the very nature of how Africa’s biggest economies become integrated and organized will be changed.

Africans in charge of Africa

What is emblematic of this healthy competition between Abuja and Pretoria is the broader shift toward regionalism in global affairs, where geography begins to take on much of the role formerly held by “hard power.”  As the US analysts Ian Bremmer of Eurasia Group and Steve Clemons of New America Foundation have argued in The Atlantic, “In response to the global power vacuum, we’ll see a return to geography as a primary organizing principle, where a country’s placement will determine its friends and enemies, trading partners, and foreign policy focus to an outsized degree. (…)  A host of factors and forces are promoting unique constellations of regional power around the world. Clearly, the nature and degree of regional cohesion will vary. Some groupings are more formalized — the European Union is the most formal and mature integration of states, with significant institutional capacity at a regional level. Other regions will be more informally arranged, with sheer power dynamics driving cohesion; in this regard, the Caucasus and broader Middle East regions come to mind. In some cases, unity will be more symbiotic with voluntary participation — in other cases, a coercive local hegemon may impose integration on neighbors that do not have the capacity to hedge their bets against it.”

So what kind of regional integration can we expect in Africa over the next decade?  Will it be formal or informal, voluntary or coercive, or based along ethnic and religious lines?  The institutional efforts that have been made so far to integrate African nations politically (African Union) and economically (ECOWAS, COMESA, etc.) have so far failed to materialize any formal strength and lack any enforcement mechanism to uphold their rules.  This would indicate that in the future, the regional economy would be organized on both voluntary (soft power) and coercive (Nigeria’s UN military commitments and South Africa’s financial prowess) bases.  Given how sharply both Nigeria and South Africa butted heads over the immunizations issue, the outcome of this growing rivalry will come to define who plays what roles in the future of Africa’s economic development, and who will make the rules and who will take the rules.

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47 Responses to Nigeria-South Africa Diplomatic Spat Highlights Growing Regional Rivalry

  1. Ajileye Tubosun

    March 9, 2012 at 18:34

    If we can awake the sleeping giant in us by genuine fight of corruption, Unemployment, insecurity, importation, and establish a reasonable, competent, unbiased and speedy judicial system, then reduce the exorbitant cost of governance.

  2. Robinson

    March 9, 2012 at 18:51

    I wonder why our government will accept apology from S. Africa without making them to pay compensation to those guys, neglating the fact that some spent thier life savings just to go and look for greener pasture. It’s a pity.

    • tk007e

      March 10, 2012 at 23:57

      South Africa does not owe Nigeria anything. Penalties? What sort of penalties? I’d be enranged if the South African government rewards these criminals with any monetary gain! Rediculous! Nigeria should stop diverting attention from their fractured society and collapsing state! They should be outraged at unfortunate hundreds of daily killings in their own country instead of faking outrage and scape-goating a far-away South Africa!

  3. Dullah

    March 9, 2012 at 19:05

    i dont blame South African for treating Nigerian like dogs. if not for the set back couse by corruption and bad governace, Nigeria would have been too developed for common South Africa to toy with.

    • James Kimer

      March 9, 2012 at 20:13

      Thank you for your comment. While I would agree with you that Nigeria needs to effectively address corruption, the problem can hardly be used as an excuse for the treatment of Nigerians as some sort of inferior nationality by the South Africans.

      Take for example the massive protests of tens of thousands of South Africans just this week, many of them representing labor unions that were formerly supportive of the government, denouncing the scourge of corruption among the ruling ANC party.

      Corruption is a problem among both nations; it is not unique to Nigeria at all.


    March 9, 2012 at 19:27

    Nigeria of all nation.giant of africa bt i dont blame them i.blame our govt

  5. Kenny Sho

    March 9, 2012 at 19:40

    Quite glad with Nigeria’s response to SA’s show of senseless pride.
    Things seem to be pointing upwards for us. Very soon we won’t need to scream it to the rest of the world, the world will smply see our superiority. Very soon!

  6. Baba King

    March 9, 2012 at 19:48

    A fool @ 40 is a fool 4 ever.

  7. don chyk

    March 9, 2012 at 19:54

    lets treat these international insult by fighting 4 @ least one year,then d winner will become d power state of africa without any envy…God punish devil:

  8. Rasaq lawal

    March 9, 2012 at 20:22

    If not for a hen that left her children behind for eagle to carry,who is south africa to nigeria.

  9. ABJ

    March 9, 2012 at 20:26

    Pls d FG enough is enough, d embarassment’s too much on us, i beg u guyz 2 do sumtin abt dis country, d insult n humiliatn too much i beg.

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  11. Guy Smiley

    March 9, 2012 at 22:47

    South Africa as the gateway to Africa, huh? I work for an exporter in America, and everyone in the industry knows Nigeria holds that title.

    • James Kimer

      March 10, 2012 at 13:20

      I share this observation. It’s all about market size and geographic position.

  12. James Ugbo

    March 9, 2012 at 23:16

    It baffles me that when issues of national interest are being discussed, some of us start to utter self debasing words instead of addressing the real issue. We have corruption, yes. but is that the reason for South Africa to behave the way they did? Look, most countries in the world, even in Europe, yes, Europe are corrupt. Every country has its bad eggs. South Africa itself has a very high crime rate, drugs, rape etc.
    South Africa has forgotten so soon how we sacrificed for their emancipation. We lost a lot of priviledges we used to get from Britain because of steps we took in those days against Britain in order to force them to facilitate South Africa’s independence from apartheid. They never would have been able to achieve that freedom without the effort of countries like Nigeria and other African nations. Now their way of saying thank you is by turning the same apartheid and segregatory tactics against us! Its a big shame.
    South Africa shot itself on the foot by their yellow fever card excuse. Since the yellow fever card is a prerequisite for obtaining their visa in the first instance, they now imply that their visa office is corrupt and ineffective for issuing the visa in the first place.
    Apology alone is not enough. we should demand compensation for the poor passengers affected, and a review of the obnoxious yellow fever policy.
    And for the Foreign Affairs Ministry and our government I say well done for the way we have handled this so far, and let us continue to deal squarely with issues such as this in similar fashion in the future.

  13. smith

    March 9, 2012 at 23:35

    I quite agree with one of the comments made earlier, the federal govt is supposed to ask south africa to pay for the damage done to their visitor(deported nigerians). Cos i dont seem to understand who will bear the cost of the deportation,most people spent their life savings on that trip,
    I for 1 too is planning on visiting south africa nextweek,and I’m investing all †ђξ money i have on it. Imagine if i were among †ђξ deportees. What would have become of me.

    • 9jaBrozz

      March 10, 2012 at 08:41

      You should be mindful of your contributions.

      While I might agree with you on the issue of compensation, I totally disagree with you on the reason – Cos i dont seem to understand who will bear the cost of the deportation,most people spent their life savings on that trip,
      I for 1 too is planning on visiting south africa nextweek,and I’m investing all †ђξ money i have on it.

      This simply portrays Nigerians visiting South Africa as Economic Refugees. Now this is wrong. Nigerians go South Africa mostly for Vacations, Health, Education and Business purposes.

  14. Joshua tunbi

    March 10, 2012 at 00:06

    Abuja was built wit our tax nd sweat! Pretoria was a gift frm colonial incursion.however d giant in us is slumbering! Nigeria has got potentials, economic growth propensity, market strenght, untapped natural resources, all these amist d monster of corruption, political nd policy instability, security threat nd down syndrom power. Nigeria, you are a giant! Wake up d giant in u!

  15. jiday

    March 10, 2012 at 00:07

    These news don’t move these so called nigerian leaders, and please let’s just change their names from leaders to looters. Shame on nigeria!,common southafrica dey deport Nigerians(I weep 4 my nation), its a very big shame to be a part of this country that will not allow people with good intentions rule it. I can only hope there is a bright future for this country, but I don’t see it…

  16. Mustapha Ringim

    March 10, 2012 at 00:14

    International Relations is all about interest rather than on friendship beclouded by sentiments.Whatever Nigeria might have done to or in SA, was done to protect its domestic interest and earn international respect in terms of ecomomic and political might. What is wrong if SA is also trying to out smart a failing Nigerian State and take its place in the spectrum of Internationl arena? The world is becoming a multi-polar global village, with each nation struggling to set a standard as well as find a soft landing in terms of recognition and progress. Let our leaders have a second thought, by doing what’s expected of them if not, Niger and Togo will do the same if not more. You don’t sit at home and demand for respect, you MUST stand up to earn it. Gone are the days when we sit down and write trash for public consumption in the name of being the African giant.

  17. Owasco

    March 10, 2012 at 01:15

    A big thanks to those of u dat hav contributed to dis issues in one way nd the other. The truth is dat we shud stop demonstrating ourselves as gaint of what soever u call it. Giant my foot. Our wiseness,too kwn nd self centredness is killing us. Take a look at Ghana for example unlike how it was bfore. This is wot I am expecting frm the sects called Boko Haram to be doing eliminating the bad ones amist us so dat dis country can enjoy wot planted for. And we shud stop using Bible,Quran,to sewin our leaders instead Cutlass(Songo,Oya nd the like) Thunder frm heaven,for their sewin. Many are dying everyday all in the name of bad government,corruption,political problems…… Stop demonstrating urselves as GIANT OF AFRICA.

  18. Faruk Mohammed

    March 10, 2012 at 01:35

    QUESTION: So how does Nigeria, with its penchant (desire) for self-destructive corruption, militant’s violence, and notoriously poor governance, stand a chance of competing with South African for regional influence???
    ANSWER: South Africa is seen as the star of Africa, as it boasts the highest GDP on the continent ($363.7 billion in 2010), impressively advanced transportation and utility infrastructure, and 18-years of stable post-apartheid governance under a constitutional democracy. However, the poorest 25% of South Africans live on even less than the poorest segment of Nigeria’s population because of the looming corruption from the ruling Africa National Congress (ANC) party. …………

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  21. Wale Ishola

    March 10, 2012 at 02:57

    I quite appreciate all contributions to this well thought comment. It still shows our sense of pride isn’t lost totally lost due to poverty, insecurity and corruption plaguing our nation. Taking you down memory lane, Nigeria as always been @ the vanguard of peaceful, harmonious and unified African continent with both material and military commitment to conflicts since independence. We cant forget in hurry our role in Apartheid South Africa, Congo war, Sierra leone’s war, Liberia’s war and more recently Darfur. Rather than this brotherly approach endeared us to fellow African countries, confusingly, it has create more enemies than friends. Its quite unfortunate that most countries we’ve helped to find their footing are our worst enemies on the continent expect few. They tend to frustrate our efforts and interest in continental decision making bodies when their support are mostly needed. Our government might have turn us into refugees seeking for help in the name of searching for greener pastures but South Africa’s point of entry refusal of nigeria’s travelers is debasing, inhuman and highly disrespectful. We’ve always played the big brother role by indulging excesses of most countries leaving our citizens to suffer inexplicably in foreign land. That is why it most be lauded, the effort of federal government led by highly impressive foreign affairs minister, Gbenga Ashiru, for showing to the outside world via the retaliatory approach that; our government silence over the years isn’t a sign of weakness but calculated approach to accommodate political transgression of fellow countries so as to foster unity and progress. This diplomatic row between two Africa’s giant is a wake up call on government to put its house in order by curbing corruption, ensure political stability, provide adequate security, and above all, strive towards providing stable electricity, so that our true sleeping potential can be woken up. This will serve as an impetus for sustainable growth and development which will engender a return home from hellish and hostile environments that our brains are seeking refugee.

  22. bello bolaji

    March 10, 2012 at 03:56

    if not the bad govt that we have in Nigeria,who is south african’ to Nigerians? But i believe with time things will change for good in our country(Nigeria)…God bless Nigeria.

  23. bello bolaji

    March 10, 2012 at 04:01

    if not the bad govt that we have in Nigeria,who is South African’ to Nigerians.but we time i believe things will change for good our country(Nigeria).God bless Nigeria…

  24. spike

    March 10, 2012 at 06:41

    I think is about time the FGN starts takin things serious….i won’t be surprise if other nations like benin republic and togo follow the footsteps of recent NIGERIA has become a toothless bulldog and it is normal for “insgnificant” nations to treat us the way they do….

  25. Shams

    March 10, 2012 at 06:47

    I still believe in the economic policies of Gen sani Abacha, for Nigeria to practice a closed economy system as a tool to further strengthen her GDP and in the long run reap total economic benefits as the ‘asian tigers’ did

  26. Charles Nosa

    March 10, 2012 at 07:01

    The general propensity of this country called ‘South Africa’ to want to flex power with Nigeria at any given opportunity leaves me amused. Corruption or not, Nigeria and South Africa are not at par when it comes to power-flexing. If Nigeria deceides to be deplomatically belligerent, it will not be palatable. South Africa should drop their xenophobic and arrogant attitude since human being are generally gregarious in nature and pride goes before the fall.

  27. Innocent odey

    March 10, 2012 at 07:10

    Nigeria foriegn relations shul not b base on curruptions. Which country is not currupt? Often time we hear of bad treatment against nigeria national for fear of the person being currupt. This must stop as Nigeria shul return tit 4 tat as done agains South Africa be it US, Britain or any so called super powers.

  28. Kazeem Yinusa

    March 10, 2012 at 07:17

    Nice analysis. Maybe the rivalry will turn out to be good for Nigeria as a senator was also deported among the 125 Nigerians. Soon they’ll realize that the country needs a strong economy to command respect even in Africa. GEJ will realize that without development our presidents in the future might need to queue for a Visa at the SA embassy. Hope that never happens…

  29. Alhaji usman

    March 10, 2012 at 08:56

    9Ja govt should demands compensation from SA GOVT to the Nigerians victims or itself bears it alone and look inward to put it house in order by eliminating corruption,violence,fix the power problem and address unemloyment.

  30. Opey Akinlolu

    March 10, 2012 at 09:46

    It is about time African countries realise that this internal competition, although with minimal benefit is unhealthy for the long term interest of the region. We need to focus more on improving bilateral trade and cooperation among countries in the region, leveraging our unique capabilities for the good of the continents. Africa has a lot to offer the world.

    • James Kimer

      March 10, 2012 at 13:24

      Thank you for your comment. Economic competition in Africa is a good thing – getting into bitter fights, on the other hand, is not helpful.

      We have to remember that when Nigeria does well, so will South Africa, and vice versa. I think that when I wrote about “regional leadership” I did not mean to argue that it has to occur at the cost of the well being of another African state, I just meant that very soon the governments of Africa’s leading nations are going to have to undertake new roles of responsibility, settling conflicts, handling disputes, monitoring elections, and upholding a new set of mutually agreed rules (written by member states, not an outside party).

      The days of insularity, isolationism, and defaulting to the management of empires is coming to an end.

  31. Uchenna Nnadi

    March 10, 2012 at 14:32

    What Nigeria really needs to move forward is for the peoples of Nigeria to determine and harmonise Nigeria’s religious status: constitutionally Nigeria is a secular State, “legally” Nigeria is OIC country, also a section of the country has adopted shariah:this impedes religious plurality, security, economic progress, but breeds, grooms and protects corruption, bad governance, terrorism, rentism and instability.

  32. toun

    March 10, 2012 at 14:48

    Did any of those passengers consider organising a class action against the South African authorities to get back their airfares and for damages for risk to their lives? But perhaps Arik refunded airfares to them

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  35. Nigerians Are Fulls

    March 10, 2012 at 21:42

    Keep fooling yourselves. Most South Africans don’t hate all Africans. Most South Africans hate Nigerians just like the rest of Africa. You lot are clueless. Your exercise has done your image more harm than good in South Africa, the rest of Africa and beyond Africa’s borders. It’s okay: tell yourselves what you like – we’ll keep taking your money and using it to feather our own nests while you blow one another up.

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  37. Jay

    March 11, 2012 at 13:04

    This is a case of pure power diplomacy. Too much is being made of a rather small issue. it is entirely true to mull over corruption, however, that is not anywhere near the case here…

    South African institutions are wary of Nigerian influx into the country because of factual drug issues dating back to the Mandela Presidency. Moreover, if Nigeria is such a fantastic country, why is it that a vast number of Nigerian people have left their country looking for “better pastures”, specifically in South Africa? Well i have the answer…

    It is because South Africa IS THE BEST STATE IN AFRICA. This is why the rest of africa comes here to seek oppourtunities. the South Sfrican Government reserves the right to protect its borders and govern them in whatever way it deems fit. The fact that the government was wrong in its actions against Nigerian citizens has been highlighted and the issue dealt with. In fact, the Nigerian government responded in kind!

    What is truely laughable though is the extent to which the Nigerian government reacted. Moreover, trying to pull the drawcard of targeting South african companies in Nigeria is hilarious! How is the Nigerian public and infrastructure going to cope without South african investments and businesses!? The extent of the Nigerian response can be highlighted and interpreted through their present sitution in terms of state security and governance…

    South Africa does have its own problems, but these problems are being resolved with time, bearing in mind that this state has made MASSIVE strides since Apartheid! Whereas Nigeria has only descended deeper into Western dependence, poor governance and utterly endemic corruption with an economy that’s only good for oil plunder by Uncle Sam.

    The worth of a state isn’t only covered by it’s economic growth or resources. South Africa is the undisputed King of this continent and it is easy to see why. South Africa is where it is without oil and we fight for progress, in civil society and abroad. Do not make this an argument over which state is more powerful in Africa, because South Africa will come up trumps. New and recent discoveries will see South Africa surge past Nigeria in the course of the next 20 years.

    My wish to see South africa forge ahead as the undisputed Gateway to the continent will be realised within the next 20 years.

    Watch this space…There will come a day when we will be able to turn away folk at the border and airport and we will have enough power to not have to apologize!

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  39. Ijimbili John

    March 11, 2012 at 21:45

    Its not south Africa’s fault to have treated Nigeria the they did, Nigeria is been found of over pampering foreigners. Foreigners will come to Nigeria and be ruling us, has opportunity to job in our country than the indigence. I think, its high time Nigeria should have a rethink that foreigners are not better than us in any way, and should stop giving them the impression that they are on top of us. Long life federal republic of Nigeria.

  40. muhammed ocheja

    March 13, 2012 at 09:23

    Jay whatever u call ur self, am responding to ur senseless points that nigerians are coming to south Africa for better life u are absolutely wrong. South africa is not better Nigeria. Best economy in Africa as u see south africa; is a country where most of her citizens beg before they survive. Foreigners in south africa created jobs for them selves then employ south africans to work. Chinese, American,canadian are in south africa does it mean south africa is better than their countries. U stated that nigeria can not do without south africans companies, if u are educated u should know that consumers are the life of any production industry. If u invest in a bad economy there is no way u can get well returns. South africans companies are doing well in Nigeria just because Nigerians can afford to pay for their products in cash. We don’t live on credits in Nigeria. Thank GOD for south africa for a colonial gift of infrastructures.

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  42. voice of one

    March 19, 2012 at 02:23

    i just hope the SA’s minister of home afairs who is currently seeking leadership position at the AU who SA government has previous lobied the Nigerian government to give her backing at the election has nothing to do with this whole thing if Nigeria did not back her at the AU as they solicited she may have decided to use her office to inflict some pain on the Nigerians however well done on this one nigerian government if we realize our weaknesses now we can still fix it, i feel for my land a virgin whom his own faimly decided to rape and continouly rape invites stranger to join them rape her voice is almost gone from crying who will rescue her or gr8 Nigeria